Publications

Journal Publications

Abalos, M., W. J. Randel, D. E. Kinnison, and E. Serrano, 2013: Quantifying tracer transport in the tropical lower stratosphere using WACCM. Atmos. Chem. Phys.,13, 10591-10607, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10591-2013.

Abbot, D. S., M. Huber, G. Bousquet, and C. C. Walker, 2009: High-CO2 cloud radiative forcing feedback over both land and ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., L05702, doi:10.1029/2008GL036703.

Abiodun, B. J., J. M. Prusa, and W. J. Gutowski, 2008: Implementation of a non-hydrostatic, adaptive-grid dynamics core in CAM3. Part I: Comparison of dynamics cores in aqua-planet simulations.  Clim. Dynamics, 31, 795-810 doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0381-y.

Abiodun, B. J., W. J. Gutowski, and J. M. Prusa, 2008: Implementation of a non-hydrostatic, adaptive-grid dynamics core in CAM3. Part II: Dynamical Influences on ITCZ behavior and tropical precipitation.  Clim. Dynamics, 31, 811-822,  doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0382-x. 

Aghedo, A. M., K. W. Bowman, H. M. Worden, S. S. Kulawik, D. T. Shindell, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Faluvegi, M. Parrington, D. B. A. Jones, and S. Rast, 2011: The vertical distribution of ozone instantaneous radiative forcing from satellite and chemistry climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D01304, doi:10.1029/2010JD014637.

Albani, S., N. M. Mahowald, A. T. Perry, R. A. Scanza, N. G. Heavens, C. S. Zender, V. Maggi, J. F. Kok, and B. L. Otto-Bliesner, 2014: Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 06, doi: 10.1002/2013MS000279.

Alexander, L. V., and J. M. Arblaster, 2009: Assessing trends in observed and modelled climate extremes over Australia in relation to future projections.  Int. J. Climatol., 29, 417-435, doi:10.1002/joc.1730.

Alexander, M. A., U. S. Bhatt, J. Walsh, M. Timlin, and J. Miller, 2004: The atmospheric response to realistic arctic sea ice anomalies in an AGCM during winter. J. Climate, 17, 890-905.

Alexander, M., J. Yin, G. Branstator, A. Capotondi, C. Cassou, R. Cullather, Y-O. Kown, J. Norris, J. Scott, and I. Wainer, 2006: Extratropical atmosphere-ocean variability in CCSM3.  J. Climate, 19 (11), 2496-2525.

Alexander, M. A., R. Tomas, C. Deser, and D. M. Lawrence, 2010: The atmospheric response to projected terrestrial snow changes in the late 21st Century.  J. Climate, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3899.1.

Alexander, M. J., M. Geller, C. McLandress, S. Polavarapu, P. Preusse, F. Sassi, K. Sato, S. Eckermann, M. Ern, A. Hertzog, Y. Kawatani, M. Pulido, T. A. Shaw, M. Sigmond, R. Vincent, and S. Watanabe, 2010: Recent developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models. Q. J. of the Royal Met. Soc., 136 (650), 1103-1124, doi:10.1002/qj.637.

Alexeev, V. A., D. J. Nicolsky, V. E. Romanovsky, and D. M. Lawrence, 2007:  An evaluation of deep soil configurations in the CLM3 for improved representation of permafrost.  Geophys. Res. Lett, 34, L09502, doi:10.1029/2007GL029536.

Ali, J., and M. Huber, 2010: Mammalian biodiversity on Madagascar controlled by ocean currents.  Nature, 463, 653-656, doi:10.1038/nature08706. 

Alo, C., and G. L. Wang, 2008: Hydrological impact of the potential future vegetation response to climate changes projected by 8 GCMs. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 113, G03011, doi:10.1029/2007JG000598.

Alo, C., and G. L. Wang, 2008: Potential future changes of the terrestrial ecosystem based on climate projections by eight general circulation models. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 113, G01004, doi:10.1029/2007JG000528. 

Alo, C. A., and G. L. Wang, 2010: Role of vegetation dynamics in regional climate predictions over western Africa. Clim. Dyn., 35, 907-922, doi:10.1007/s00383-010-0744-z.

Alterskjær, K., 2009: Master’s thesis: How do changes in Arctic stratus influence Arctic climate?

Alterskjær, K., J. E. Kristjánsson, and C. Hoose, 2010: Do anthropogenic aerosols enhance or suppress the surface cloud forcing in the Arctic? J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22204, doi:10.1029/2010JD014015.

Ammann, C., G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, and C. Zender, 2003:  A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.10292003GL016875RR.

Ammann, C. M., F. Joos, D. S. Schimel, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, and R. A. Tomas, 2007: Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model. Proc. National Academy Sci., 104, 3713-3718. 

Ammann, C. M., W. M. Washington, G. A. Meehl, L. Buja, and H. Teng, 2010:  Climate engineering through artificial enhancement of natural forcings: Magnitudes and implied consequences.  J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22109, doi:10.1029/2009JD012878.

Amstrup, S. C., E. DeWeaver, D. C. Douglas, B. G. Marcot, G. M. Durner, C. M. Bitz, D. A. Bailey, 2010: Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.  Nature, doi:10.1038/nature09654. 

Anderson, B. T., and E. D. Maloney, 2006: Interannual tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures and their relation to preceding sub-tropical sea level pressures in the NCAR CCSM2.0. J. Climate, 19, 998-1012. 

Anderson, J. L., 2009: Ensemble Kalman filters for large geophysical applications. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 29 (3), 66-82.

Anderson, J., T. Hoar, K. Raeder, H. Liu, N. Collins, R. Torn, and A. Arellano, 2009: The Data Assimilation Research Testbed: A Community Facility. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society90 (9), 1283-1296.

Angert, A., J. E. Lee, and D. Yakir, 2008: Seasonal variations in the isotopic composition of near surface water vapor in the Eastern-Mediterranean.  Tellus B, 60B, 674-684 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2008.00357.x.

Arain, M. A., E. J. Burke, Z.-L. Yang, and W. J. Shuttleworth, 1999: Implementing surface parameter aggregation rules in the CCM3 global climate model: Regional responses at the land surface. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 3 (4), 463-476.

Aranibar, J. N., J. A. Berry, W. J. Riley, D. E. Pataki, B. E. Law, and J. R. Ehleringer, 2006: Combining meteorology, eddy fluxes, isotope measurements, and modeling to understand environmental controls of carbon isotope discrimination at the canopy scale. Global Change Biology, 12, ISI:000236549600010710-730.

Arblaster, J. M., G. A. Meehl, and A. Moore, 2002: Interdecadal modulation of Australian rainfall. Clim. Dyn., 18, 519-531.

Arblaster, J. M., and G. A. Meehl, 2006: Contribution of various external forcings to trends in the Southern Annular Mode.  J. Climate, 19, 2896–2905.

Arblaster J. M., G. A. Meehl, and D. J. Karoly, 2011: Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02701, doi:10.1029/2010GL045384.

Arblaster, J. M., and L. V. Alexander, 2012: The impact of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on maximum temperature extremes.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(20), L20702, doi:10.1029/2012GL053409.

Archer, C. L., and K. Caldeira, 2009: Global assessment of high-altitude wind power.Energies, 2 (2), 307-319; doi:10.3390/en20200307.

Arellano, A. F., K. Raeder, J. Anderson, P. Hess, L. Emmons, D. Edwards, G. Pfister, T. Campos, and G. Sachse, 2007: Evaluating model performance of an ensemble-based chemical data assimilation system during INTEX-B field mission.  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5695-5710. 

Arellano, A. F., P. G. Hess, D. P. Edwards, and D. Baumgardner, 2010: Constraints on black carbon aerosol distribution from Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) CO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L17801, doi:10.1029/2010GL044416.

Armour, K. C., I. Eisenman, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, K. E. McCusker, and C. M. Bitz, 2011: The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16705, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739.

Armour, K. C., C. M. Bitz, and G. H. Row, 2013: Time-varying climate sensitivity from regional feedbacks.  J. Climate, 26, 4518-5434, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-12-11544.1.

Arnone, E., A. K. Smith, C. F. Enell, A. Kero, and B. M. Dinelli, 2014: WACCM climate-chemistry sensitivity to sprite perturbations. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 119(11), 6958–6970, doi:10.1002/2013JD020825. 

Ault, T. R., J. E. Cole, J. T. Overpeck, G. T. Pederson, S. S. George, B. Otto-Bliesner, C. A. Woodhouse, and C. Deser, 2013: The continuum of hydroclimate variability in western North America during the last millennium. J. Climate, 26, 5863-5878.

Austin, J. et al., 2008: Coupled chemistry climate model simulations of the solar cycle in ozone and temperature.  J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11306, doi:10.1029/2007JD009391.

Austin, J., et al., 2009: Coupled chemistry climate model simulations of stratospheric temperatures and their trends for the recent past.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13809, doi:10.1029/2009GL038462.  

Austin, J., J. Scinocca, D. Plummer, L. Oman, D. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, S. Bekki, P. Braesicke, N. Butchart, M. Chipperfield, D. Cugnet, M. Dameris, S. Dhomse, V. Eyring, S. Frith, R. R. Garcia, H. Garny, A. Gettelman, S. C. Hardiman, D. Kinnison, J. -F. Lamarque, E. Mancini, M. Marchand, M. Michou, O. Morgenstern, T. Nakamura, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, J. Pyle, E. Rozanov, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, D. Smale, R. Stolarski , H. Teyssedre, R. J. Wilson, Y.Yamashita, 2010: The decline and recovery of total column ozone using a multi-model time series analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M10, doi:10.1029/2010JD013857.

Austin, J., H. Struthers, J. Scinocca, D. Plummer, H. Akiyoshi, A. J. G. Baumgaertner, S. Bekki, G. E. Bodeker, P. Braesicke, C. Bruhl, N. Butchart, M. Chipperfield, D. Cugnet, M. Dameri, S. Dhomse, S. Frith, H. Garny, A. Gettelman, S. Hardiman, P. Jocke , D. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Marchand, M. Michou, O. Morgenstern, T. Nakamura , J. E. Nielsen, G. Pitari, J. Pyle, T. G. Shepherd, K. Shibata, D. Smale, R. Stolarski, H. Teyssedr , Y.Yamashita, 2010: Chemistry climate model simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M11, doi:10.1029/2009JD013577.

Back, L., K. Russ, Z. Liu, K. Inoue, J. Zhang, and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2013: Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming. J. Climate, 26, 8781-8786.

Bacmeister, J., P. H. Lauritzen, A. Dai, and J. E. Truesdale, 2011: Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett.,39, L04806,  doi:10.1029/2011GL050533.

Bacmeister, J. T., R. B. Neale, A. Gettelman, C. Hannay, P. H. Lauritzen, J. Caron, J. Truesdale, and M. Wehner, 2014: Exploratory high-resolution climate simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM).  J. Climate, 27, 3073-3099. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00387.1. 

Baer, F., H. Wang, J. J. Tribbia, and A. Fournier, 2006: Climate modeling with spectral elements.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 (12), 3610-3624.

Baker, D. F. et al., 2006: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988-2003. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 20 (1), doi:10.1029/2004GB002439.

Bakker, P., E. J. Stone, S. Charbie, M. Groger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, S. P. Ritz. V. Varma, V. Khon, D. J. Lunt, U. Mikolajewicz, M. Prange, H. Renssen, B. Schneider, and M. Schultz, 2013: Last interglacial temperature evolution : A model intercomparison.  Climate of the Past, 9, 605-619, doi:10.5194/cp-9-605-2013.

Bakker, P., V. Masson-Delmotte, B. Martrat, S. Charbit, H. Renssen, M. Gröger, U. Krebs-Kanzow, G. Lohman, D. J. Lunt, M. Pfeiffer, S. J. Phipps, M. Prange, S. P. Ritz, M. Schulz, B. Stenni, E. J. Stone, and V. Varma, 2014: Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods - A multi-model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 99, 224-243, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.031.

Bala, G., K. Caldeira, A. Mirin, M. Wickett, and C. Delire, 2005: Direct effects of CO2-fertilization on climate. Tellus B, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00210.x.

Bala, G., K. Caldeira, A. Mirin, M. Wickett, and C. Delire, 2005: Multi-century changes to global climate and carbon cycle model: Results from a coupled climate and carbon cycle model. J. Climate, 18, 4531-4544.

Bala, G., R. B. Rood, D. Bader, A. Mirin, D. Ivanova, and C. Drui, 2008: Simulated Climate near Steep Topography: Sensitivity to Dynamical Methods for Atmospheric Transport. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14807, doi:10.1029/2008GL033204. 

Bala, G., R. B. Rood, A. Mirin, J. McClean, K. Achutarao, D. Bader, P. Gleckler, R. Neale, and P. Rasch, 2008: Evaluation of a CCSM3 simulation with a finite volume dynamical core for the atmosphere at 1° latitude x 1.25° longitude resolution.  J. Climate, 21, 1467-1486.

Ballantyne, A.P., Y. Axford, G.H. Miller, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, N. Rosenbloom, and J.W.C. White, 2013: The amplification of Arctic terrestrial surface temperatures by reduced sea-ice extent during the Pliocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 386, 59-67.

Banner, J. L., C. S. Jackson, Z. -L, Yiang, K. Hayhoe, C. Woodhouse, L. Gulden, K. Jacobs, G. North, R. Leung, W. M. Washington, X. Jiang, and R. Casteel, 2010: Climate change impacts on Texas water:  A white paper assessment of the past, present and future and recommendations for action.  Texas Water Journal, 1 (1), 1-19.

Ban-Weiss, G. A., and K. Caldeira, 2010: Geoengineering as an optimization problem. Environmental Research Letters, 5, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/3/034009.

Bardeen, C., O. B. Toon, E. J. Jensen, D. R. Marsh, V. L. Harvey, 2008: Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of meteoric dust in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res, 113 (D17), D17202, doi:10.1029/2007JD009515.

Bardeen, C. G., O. B. Toon, E. J. Jensen, M. E. Hervig, C. E. Randall, S. Benze, D. R. Marsh, and A. Merkel, 2010: Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of polar mesospheric clouds and comparisons with Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment and the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) observations.  J. Geophys. Res., 115, D10204, doi:10.1029/2009JD012451. 

Bardin, A., F. Primeau, and K. Lindsay, 2014: An offline implicit solver for simulating prebomb radiocarbon.  Ocean Modelling, 73, 45-58. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.09.008 

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, H. G. Hidalgo, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, T. Das, G. Bala, A. W. Wood, T. Nozawa, A. A. Mirin, D. R. Cayan, and M. D. Dettinger, 2008: Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States.  Science, 319, 1080-1083. 

Barrie, D., and D. B. Kirk-Davidoff, 2010: Weather response to a large wind turbine array. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 769-775. 

Barton, N. P., S. A. Klein, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Arctic synoptic regimes: Comparing domain-wide Arctic cloud observations with CAM4 and CAM5 during similar dynamics.  J. Geophys. Res., 117, D15205, doi:10.1029/2012JD017589. 

Bates, S. C., B. Fox-Kemper, S. R. Jayne, W. G. Large, S. Stevenson, and S. G. Yeager, 2013: Mean biases, variability and trends in air-sea fluxes in sea surface temperature in the CCSM4.  J. Climate, 25, 7781-7801.

Baumgaertner, A. J. G., J. P. Thayer, R. R. Neely III, and G. Lucas, 2013: Toward a comprehensive global electric circuit model: Atmospheric conductivity and its variability in CESM1(WACCM) model simulations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(16), 9221-9232, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50725.

Beaulieu, C. S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, S. C. Doney, R. R. Rykaczewski, and L. Bopp, 2013: Factors challenging our ability to detect long-term trends in ocean chlorophyll.  Biogeosciences, 10, 2711-2724, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2711-2013.

Beer, C., et al., 2010: Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and co-variation with climate.  Science, 329, 834-838, doi:10.1126/science.1184984. 

Behrenfeld, M. J., T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, 2009: Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton. Biogeosciences, 6, 779-794.

Behrenfeld, M. J., S. C. Doney, I. Lima, E. S. Boss, and D. A. Siegel, 2013: Annual cycles of ecological disturbance and recovery underlying the subarctic Atlantic spring plankton bloom.  Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, 526-540, doi:10.1002/gbc.20050.

Bell, J., P. B. Duffy, C. Covey, and L. Sloan, 2000: Analysis of temperature variability in sixteen climate model simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 261-264.

Benedict, J. J., and D. A. Randall, 2009: MJO Structure in the Superparameterized CAM. J. Climate, 66, 3277-3296.

Bentsen, M., I. Bethke, J. B. Debernard, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevag, O. Seland, H. Drange, C. Roeland, I. A. Seierstad, C. Hoose, and J. E. Kristjansson, 2013: The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M. Part 1: Description and basic evaluation of the physical climate.  Goesci, Model Dev., 6, 687-720. 

Beres, J. H., R. R. Garcia, B. A. Boville, and F. Sassi, 2005: Implementation of a gravity wave source spectrum parameterization dependent on the properties of convection in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005504.

Berg, A. R., C. L. Heald, K. E. Huff Hartz, A. G. Hallar, A. J. H. Meddens, J. A. Hicke, J.-F. Lamarque, and S. Tilmes, 2013: The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in Western North America. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3149-3161, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3149-2013. 

Berner, J., and G. Branstator, 2007: Linear and nonlinear signatures in the planetary wave dynamics of an AGCM: Probability density functions. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 117-136.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3822.1

Berner, R. A., and Z. Kothavala, 2001: GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 301, 182-204.

Bertrand, F.,Y. Yuan, K. Chiu, andR. Bramley, 2005: An approach to parallel M x N communication. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 19, 399-407.

Bhatt, U. S., J. Zhang, W. V. Tangborn, C. S. Lingle, and L. Phillips, 2007: Examinging glacier mass balances with a hierarchical modeling approach.  Computing in Science and Engineering, 9 (2), 61-67. 

Bhatt, U. S., M. A. Alexander, C. Deser, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Miller, M. Timlin, J. D. Scott, and R. Tomas, 2008.  The atmospheric response to realistic reduced summer Arctic sea ice anomalies.  In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications.  Geophys. Monogr. Ser, 180, E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L. –B. Tremblay, Eds., AGU 91-110.

Bitz, C. M., M. M. Holland, E. Hunke, and R. E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea-ice edge. J. Climate, 18, 2903-2921.

Bitz, C. M., P. R. Gent, R. A. Woodgate, M. M. Holland, and R. Lindsay, 2006: The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. J. Climate, 19 (11), 2437-2450. 

Bitz, C. M., J. C. H. Chiang, W. Cheng, and J. J. Barsugli, 2007: Rates of thermohaline recovery from freshwater pulses in modern, last glacial maximum and greenhouse warming climates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07708, doi:10.1029/2006GL029237.

Bitz, C. M., 2008: Some aspects of uncertainty in predicting sea ice retreat. In Arctic Sea Ice Decline: observations, projections, mechanisms, and implications. AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, 180, edited by E. deWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and B. Tremblay, pp. 63-76, American Geophysical Union. 

Bitz, C. M., and L. M. Polvani, 2012: Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20705, doi:10:1029/2012GL053393.

Bitz, C. M., K. M. Shell, P. R. Gent, D. Bailey, G. Danabasoglu, K. C. Armour, M. M. Holland, and J. T. Kiehl, 2012: Climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model Version 4. J. Climate, 25, 3059-3070.

Blackburn, M., D. L. Williamson, K. Nakajima, W. Ohfuchi, Y. O. Takahashi, Y.-Y. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, M. Ishiwatari, J. L. McGregor, H. Borth, V. Wirth, H. Frank, P. Bechtold, N. P. Wedi, H. Tomita. M. Satoh, M. Zhao, I. M. Held, M. J. Suarez. M.-I. Lee, M. Watanabe, M. Kimoto, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, A. Molod, K. Rajendran, a. Kotoh, and R. Stratton, 2013: The Aqua Planet Experimente (APE): CONTROL SST simulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 914A, 17-56, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2013-A02.

Blackmon, M. B., B. Boville, F. Bryan, R. Dickinson, P. Gent, J. Kiehl, R. Moritz, D. Randall, J. Shukla, S. Solomon, G. Bonan, S. Doney, I. Fung, J. Hack, E. Hunke, J. Hurrell, et al., 2001: The Community Climate System Model. BAMS, 82 (11), 2357-2376.

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., K. Armour, C. M. Bitz, and E. DeWeaver, 2011: Persistence and inherent predictability of Arctic sea ice in a GCM ensemble and observations.  J. Climate, 24, 231-250, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3775.1. 

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., C. M. Bitz, and M. M. Holland, 2011: Influence of initial conditions and boundary forcing on predictability in the Arctic.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18503, doi:10.1029/2011GL048807.

Blois, J. L., J. W. Williams, M. C. Fitzpatrick, S. Ferrier, S. D. Veloz, F. He, Z. Liu, G. Manion, and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2013: Modeling the climatic drivers of spatial patterns in vegetation composition since the Last Glacial Maximum.  Ecography, 36, 460-473.

Bonan, G. B., 1998: The land surface climatology of the NCAR Land Surface Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate, 11, 1307-1326.

Bonan, G. B., S. Levis, L. Kergoat, and K. W. Oleson, 2002: Landscapes as patches of plant functional types: An integrating concept for climate and ecosystem models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16 (2), 1021, doi:10.10292000GB001360. 

Bonan, G. B., K. W. Oleson, M. Vertenstein, S. Levis, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, and Z.-L. Yang, 2002: The land surface climatology of the Community Land Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model.  J. Climate, 15, 3123-3149.

Bonan, G. B., S. Levis, S. Sitch, M. Vertenstein, and K. W. Oleson, 2003: A dynamic global vegetation model for use with climate models: Concepts and description of simulated vegetation dynamics. Global Change Biology, 9, 1543-1566. 

Bonan, G. B., and S. Levis, 2006: Evaluating aspects of the Community Land and Atmosphere Models (CLM3 and CAM3) using a dynamic global vegetation model. J. Climate, 19 (11), 2290-2301.

Bond, T., S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Bernstsen, O. Boucher, B. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz. D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. Zender, 2013: Bounding the role of black carbon aerosol in the climate system: A scientific assessment.  J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1-173, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171.

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Lawrence, P. J. and T. N. Chase, 2010: Investigating the climate impacts of global land cover change in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). International Journal of Climatology, doi:10.1002/joc.2061. 

Lawrence, P. J., J. J. Feddema, G. B. Bonan, G. A. Meehl, B. C. O'Neill, S. Levis, D. M. Lawrence, K. W. Oleson, E. Kluzek, K. Lindsay, and P. E. Thornton, 2012: Simulating the biogeochemical and biogeophysical impacts of transient land cover change and wood harvest in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from 1850 to 2100. J. Climate, 25, 3071-3095, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00256.1. 

Lebonnois, S., C. Covey, A. Grossman, H. Parish, G. Schubert, R. Walterscheid, P. Lauritzen, and C. Jablonowski, 2012: Angular momentum budget in general circulation models of superrotating atmospheres: A critical diagnostic.  Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 117, E12004, doi:10.1029/2012JE004223. 

Lee, E., T. N. Chase, P. J. Lawrence, and B. Rajagopalan, 2008: Model assessment of the observed relationship between El Nino and the northern East Asian summer monsoon using the community Climate System Model Community Atmosphere Model-Community Land Model version 3 (CAM-CLM3).  J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20118, oi:10.1029/2008JD009926.

Lee, E., T. N. Chase, P. J. Lawrence, and B. Rajagopalan, 2009: Model assessment of the observed relationship between El Nino and the northern East Asian summer monsoon using the Community atmosphere Model – Community Land Model version 3 (CAM-CLM3).  Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D20118, doi:10.1029/2008JD009926.

Lee, E., W. J. Sacks, T. N. Chase, and J. A. Foley, 2011: Simulated impacts of irrigation on the atmospheric circulation over Asia.  J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08114, doi:10.1029/2010JD014740. 

Lee, E., B. S. Felzer, and Z. Kothavala, 2013: Effects of nitrogen limitation on hydrological processes in CLM4-CN.  J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 741–754, doi:10.1002/jame.20046.

Lee, J. E., I. Fung, D. J. DePaolo, and C. Henning, 2007: Analysis of the global distribution of water isotopes using the NCAR atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D16306, doi:10.1029/2006JD007657.

Lee, J., and I. Fung, 2008: Amount effect of water isotopes and quantitative analysis of post-condensation processes. Hydrological Processes, 22 (1), 1-8, doi:10.1002/hyp.6637.

Lee, J. E., I. Fung, D. J. DePaolo, and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2008: Water isotopes during the Last Glacial Maximum: New GCM calculations.  J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19109, doi:10.1029/2008JD009859. 

Lee, J. E., K. Johnson, and I. Fung, 2009: Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the amount effect with a water isotope-enabled General Circulation Model. Geophy. Res. Lett, 36, L19701, doi:10.1029/2009GL039265.

Lee, J. E., R. Pierrehumbert, B. Lintner, and A. Swann, 2009: Sensitivity of the stable water isotopic values on the convective parameterization schemes.  Geophy. Res. Lett, 36, L23801, doi:10.1029/2009GL040880.

Lee, J. E., and C.K. Boyce, 2010:  The impact of hydraulic capacity on water and carbon cycles in tropical South America.  J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23123, doi:10.1029/2010JD014568. 

Lee, J. E., and A. Swann, 2010: Evaluation of using the “amount effect” to interpret speleothem data: Asian monsoon study. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 9, L23801.

Lee, J. E., B. R. Lintner, C. K. Boyce, and P. J. Lawrence, 2011: Land use change exacerbates tropical Southern American drought by sea surface temperature variability.  Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L19706, doi:10.1029/2011GL049066.

Lee, J. –E., B. Lintner, J. D. Neelin, S. Jiang, C. Boyce, J. Fisher, J. Perron, T. Kubar, and J. Worden, 2012: Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19704, doi:10.1029/2012GL053417. 

Lee, Y., M. Flanner, C. Jiao, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, M. Bisiaux, J. Cao, W. Collins, M. Curran, s. Dalsoren, S. Doherty, R. Edwards, S. Ghan, J. McConnel, J. Ming, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, s. Rumbold, R. Skeie, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, F. Thevenon, B. Xu, and J.-H. Yoon, 2013: Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP).  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607-2634, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2607-2013. 

Legg, S., B. Briegleb, Y. Chang, E. P. Chassignet, G. Danabasoglu, T. Ezer, A. L. Gordon, S. Griffies, R. Hallberg, L. Jackson, W. Large, T.M. Ozgokmen, H. Peters, J. Price, U. Riemenschneider, W. Wu, X. Xu, and J. Yang, 2009: Improving oceanic overflow representation in climate models: The Gravity Current Entrainment Climate Process Team. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 90, 657-670. 

Lehner, F., 2009: Forcing Impacts on the Freshwater Balance in Polar Regions, Master thesis, University of Bern.

Lehner, F., A. Born, C. C. Raible, and T. F. Stocker, 2012: Amplified inception of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks.  J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00690.1. 

Lehner, F., C. C. Raible, D. Hofer, and T. F. Stocker, 2012: The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500-2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model.  Climate Dyn., 39, 347-363. 

Lehner, F., C. C. Raible, and T. F. Stocker, 2012: Testing the robustness of a precipitation proxy-based North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction.  Quat. Sci. Rev., 45, 85-95. 

Lei, H., D. J. Wuebbles, X. –Z. Liang, and S. Olsen,  2013: Domestic versus international contributions on 2050 ozone air quality: How much is convertible by regional control?  Atmos. Environment, 68, 315-325, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.12.002. 

Lei, H., X. –Z. Liang, D. J. Wuebbles, and Z. Tao, 2013: Model analyses of atmospheric mercury: Present air quality and effects of transpacific transport on the United States. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 9849-9893, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-9849-2013. 

Lenton, A., B. Tilbrook, R. M. Law, D. Bakker, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, M. Hoppema, N. S. Lovenduski, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil, N. Metzl, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, P. M. S. Monteiro, C. Rodenbeck, C. Sweeney, and T. Takahashi, 2013: Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean for the period 1990-2009.  Biogeosciences, 10, 4037-4054, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4037-2013. 

Le Quéré, C., M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedlingstein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, and F. I. Woodward, 2009: Trends in the sources and sinks carbon dioxide.  Nat. Geosci., 2, 831-836, doi:10.1038/ngeo689.

Le Quéré, C., R. J. Andres, T. Boden, T. Conway, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, G. Marland, G. P. Peters, G. R. van der Werf, A. Ahlstrom, R. M. Andrew, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadel, P. Ciais, S. C. Doney, C. Enright, P. Friedlingstein, C. Huntingford, A. K. Jain, J. Jourdain, E. Kato, R. J. Keeling, K. Klein Goldweijk, S. Levis, Pl Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, J. Schwinger, S. Sitch, B. D. Stocker, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng, 2013: The global carbon budget 1959-2011. Earth System Science Data, 5, 165-185, doi:10.5194/essd-5-165-2013. 

Le Quéré, C., G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, R. M. Andrew, T. A. Boden, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, R. Moriarty, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, A. Arvanitis, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, S. C. Doney, A. Harper, I. Harris, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, S. D. Jones, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Körtzinger, C. Koven, N. Lefèvre, F. Maignan, A. Omar, T. Ono, G. -H. Park, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. Schwinger, J. Segschneider, B. D. Stocker, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, N. Viovy, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle, 2014: Global carbon budget 2013. Earth System Science Data, 6, 235–263, doi:10.5194/essd-6-235-2014. 

Letscher, R. T., J.  K. Moore, Y. -C. Teng, and F. Primeau, 2014: Variable C:N:P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model. Biogeosciences Discuss, 11, 1-31, doi:10.5194/bgd-11-1-2014.

Levine, N. M, S. C. Doney, R. Wanninkhof, K. Lindsay, and I. Fung, 2008: Impact of ocean carbon system variability on the detection of temporal increases in anthropogenic CO2. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C03019, doi:10.1029/2007JC004153. 

Levine, N. M., S. C. Doney, I. Lima, R. Wanninkhof, N. R. Bates, and R. A. Feely, 2011: The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the uptake and accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 by North Atlantic Ocean mode water. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 25, GB3022, doi:10.1029/2010GB003892. 

Levis, S., C. Wiedinmyer, G. B. Bonan, and A. Guenther, 2003: Simulating biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in the Community Climate System Model.  J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D21), 4659, doi:10.10292002JD003203.

Levis, S., and G. B. Bonan, 2004: Simulating springtime temperature patterns in the Community Atmosphere Model coupled to the Community Land Model using prognostic leaf area. J. Climate, 17, 4531-4540.

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, and C. Bonfils, 2004: Soil feedback drives the mid-Holocene North African monsoon northward in fully coupled simulations with a dynamic vegetation model. Clim. Dyn., 23, 791-802, doi:1007s00382-004-0477-y. 

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, M. Vertenstein, and K. W. Oleson, 2004: The Community Land Model's Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM): Technical description and user's guide.  NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-459+IA, 50 pp. 

Levis, S., G. B. Bonan, and P. J. Lawrence, 2007: Present-day springtime high-latitude surface albedo as a predictor of simulated climate sensitivity.  Geophys. Res. Lett, 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL30775.

Levis, S., P. Thornton, G. Bonan, and C. Kucharik, 2009: Modeling land use and land management with the Community Land Model. iLeaps Newsletter, 7, 10-12.

Levis S., G. Bonan, E. Kluzek, P. Thornton, A. Jones, W. Sacks, and C. Kucharik, 2012: Interactive crop management in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1): Seasonal influences on land-atmosphere fluxes. J. Climate, 25, 4839-4859, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00446.1

Levis, S., M. D. Hartman, and G. B. Bonan, 2014: The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation.  Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 613-620.

Li, C., D. S. Battisti, D. P. Schrag, and E. Tziperman, 2005: Abrupt climate shifts in Greenland due to displacements of the sea ice edge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023492. 

Li, C., 2007: A general circulation modelling perspective on abrupt climate change. Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington.

Li, C., and D. S. Battisti, 2008: Reduced Atlantic storminess during Last Glacial Maximum: Evidence from a coupled climate model. J. Climate, 21, 3561-3579.

Li, C., D. S. Battisti, and C. M. Bitz, 2010: Characteristics and climate impacts of sea ice in the glacial North Atlantic. J. Climate, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3409.1. 

Li, C., D. S. Battisti, and C. M. Bitz, 2010: Can North Atlantic sea ice anomalies account for Dansgaard-Oeschger climate signals?  J. Climate, 23, 5457-5475. 

Li, F., W. Collins, M. Wehner, D. Williamson, J. Olson, and C. Algieri, 2011: Impact of horizontal resolution on simulation of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet version of community Atmospheric Model (CAM3).  Tellus, 63, 884-892. 

Li, F., W. Collins, M. Wehner, D. Williamson, and J. Olson, 2011: Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection from regional to global scales.  Tellus, 63, 876-883. 

Li, F., X. D. Zeng, and S. Levis, 2012: A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model.  Biogeosciences, 9, 2761-2780.

Li, F., W. D. Collins, M. F. Wehner, and L. R. Leung, 2013: Hurricanes in an aquaplanet world: Implications of the impacts of external forcing and model horizontal resolution.  J. Adv. Mod. Earth Systems, 5, 112, doi:10.1002/jame.20020.

Li, F., S. Levis, and D. S. Ward, 2013: Quantifying the role of fire in the earth system.  Part I: Improved global fire modeling in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1).  Biogeosciences, 10, 2293-2314. 

Li, G., and G. J. Zhang, 2008: Understanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3) during El Nino. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D02103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008963. 

Li, H., A. Dai, T. Zhou, and J. Lu, 2010: Response of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950-2000. Clim. Dyn., 34, 501-514, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0482-7. 

Li, H., M. S. Wigmosta, H. Wu, M. Huang, Y. Ke, A. M. Coleman, and L. R. Leung, 2013: A physically based runoff routing model for land surface and earth system models.  J. Hydrometeor., 808-828. doi:10.1175/jhm-d-12-015.1.

Li, H., M. Huang, M. Wigmosta, Y. Ke, A. Coleman, L. R. Leung, A. Wang, and D. M. Ricciuto, 2011:  Evaluating runoff simulations from the Community Land Model 4.0 using observations from flux towers and a mountain watershed.  J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24120, doi:10.1029/2011JD016276.

Li, T., Y. Zhang, E. Lu, and D. Wang, 2002: Relative role of dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the development of the Indian Ocean dipole: An OGCM diagnosis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.10292002GL05789. 

Li, T., N. Calvo, J. Yue, X. Dou, J. M. Russell III, M. G. Mlynczak, C. -Y. She, and X. Xue, 2013: Influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the mesosphere. Geophys Res Lett, 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/grl.50598.

Li, Xichen, et al., 2014: Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice. Nature, 505, 538-542. 

Li, Y., and C. Morrill, 2010:  Multiple factors causing Holocene lake-level change in monsoonal
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Li, Y., and C. Morrill, 2013: Lake levels in Asia at the Last Glacial Maximum as indicators of hydrologic sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations.  Quarternary Science Reviews, 60, 1-12. 

Li, Z., U. S. Bhatt, and N. Mölders, 2008: Impact of doubled CO2 on the interaction between the regional and global water cycle in four study regions. Clim. Dyn., 30, 255-275. 

Li, Z., and N. Mölders, 2008: Interaction of impacts of doubling CO2 and changing regional land-cover on evaporation, precipitation, and runoff at global and regional scales. Int. J. Climatol. 28: 1653-1679.

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Liang, X. -Z., W. -C. Wang, and A. N. Samel, 2001: Biases in AMIP model simulations of the east China monsoon system. Clim. Dyn., 17, 291-304.

Liang, X. -Z., J. Pan, J. Zhu, K. E. Kunkel, J. X. L. Wang, and A. Dai, 2006: Regional climate model downscaling of the U. S. summer climate and future change.  J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006685.

Lima, I. D., P. J. Lam, and S.C. Doney, 2014: Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model. Biogeosciences, 11, 1177-1198, doi:10.5194/bg-11-1177-2014.

Lin, J. L., and B. E. Mapes, 2004: Wind shear effects on cloud-radiation feedback in the western Pacific warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16118, 10.10292004GL020199. 

Lin, J. W. –B., and J. D. Neelin, 2003: Toward stochastic deep convective parameterization in general circulation models.  Geophys. Res. Lett, 30(4), 1162, doi:10.1029/2002GL016203. 

Lin, W., M. Zhang, and J. Wu, 2009: Simulation of low clouds from the CAM and the regional WRF with multiple nested resolutions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08813, doi:10.1029/2008GL037088.

Lin, Y., L. J. Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler, M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. MaFarlane, C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: Convection responsiveness and resolution impact.  J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD017018. 

Lipscomb, W. H., E. C. Hunke, W. Maslowski, and J. Jakacki, 2007: Ridging, strength, and stability in high-resolution sea ice models. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03S91, doi:10.1029/ 2005JC003355. 

Lipscomb, W. H., J. G. Fyke, M. Vizcaino, W. J. Sacks, J. Wolfe, M. Vertenstein, a. Craig, E. Kluzek, and D. M. Lawrence, 2013: Implementation and initial evaluation of the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model in the community Earth System Model.  J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00557.1.

Liu, H. -L., F. Sassi, and R .R. Garcia, 2008: Error growth in a whole atmosphere climate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 66 (1), 173-186, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2825.1.

Liu, H. -L., B. Foster, M. E. Hagan, J. McInerney, A. Maute, L. Qian, A. D. Richmond, R. G. Roble, S. C. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, D. Kinnison, D. R. Marsh, A. K. Smith, J. Richter, F. Sassi, and J. Oberheide, 2010: Thermosphere extension of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model.  J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2010JA015586. 

Liu, H. -L., 2013: WACCM-X simulation of tidal and planetary wave variability in the upper atmosphere. In Modeling the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System, J. Huba, R. Schunk, and G. Khazanov, Eds. American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, ISBN-10: 0875904912, ISBN-13: 978-0875904917.

Liu, H. L., V. A. Yudin, and R. G. Roble, 2013: Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations. Geophys Res Lett, 40, 665-670, doi:10.1002/grl.50125. 

Liu, H., M. Zhang, and W. Lin, 2012: An investigation of the initial development of the double-ITCZ warm SST biases in the CCSM. J. Climate, 25, 140–155, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4001.1 

Liu, J., I. Fung, E. Kalnay, and J. -S. Kang, 2011: CO2 transport uncertainties from the uncertainties in meteorological fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L12808, 6 PP., doi:201110.1029/2011GL047213.

Liu, J., I. Fung, E. Kalnay, J. -S. Kang, E. T. Olsen, and L. Chen, 2012: Simultaneous assimilation of AIRS Xco(2) and meteorological observations in a carbon climate model with an ensemble Kalman filter. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D05309, doi:10.1029/2011JD016642. 

Liu, P., W. M. Washington, G. A. Meehl, G. Wu, and G. L. Potter, 2001: Historical and future trends of the Sahara Desert.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2683-2686. 

Liu, P., G. A. Meehl, and G. Wu, 2003: Multi-model trends in a Sahara induced by increasing CO2Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.10292002GL015923.

Liu, Q., L. Gu, R. E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, L. Zhou, and W. M. Post, 2008: Assimilation of satellite reflectance data into a dynamical leaf model to infer seasonally varying leaf areas for climate and carbon models. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19113, doi:10.1029/2007J D009645. 

Liu, W., Z. Liu, and A. Hu, 2013: The stability of an evolving Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1562-1568, doi:10.1002/grl.50365.

Liu, X., J. E. Penner, S. J. Ghan, and M. Wang, 2007: Inclusion of ice microphysics in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3). J. Climate, 20, 4526-4547.

Liu, X., S. Xie, and S. J. Ghan, 2007: Evaluation of a new mixed-Phase cloud microphysics parameterization with the NCAR single column climate model (SCAM) and ARM M-PACE observations. Geophysical Research Letter, 34, L23712, doi:10.1029/2007GL031446. 

Liu, X., J.  E. Penner, and M. Wang, 2009: Influence of anthropogenic sulfate and soot on upper tropospheric clouds using CAM3 coupled with an aerosol model. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03204, doi:10.1029/2008JD010492.

Liu, X., and J. Wang, 2010: How important is organic aerosol hygroscopicity to aerosol indirect forcing? Environmental Research Letters, 5, 044010, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/4/044010.

Liu, X., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J.Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu, Z. Wang and A. Zelenyuk, 2011: Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889. 

Liu, X., R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, R. Zaveri, P. Rasch, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Gettelman, H. Morrison, F. Vitt, A. Conley, S. Park, R. Neale, C. Hannay, A. Ekman, P. Hess, N. Mahowald, W. Collins, M. Iacono, C. Bretherton, M. Flanner, and D. Mitchell, 2012: Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5. Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 709-­739, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012. 

Liu, X., X. Shi, K, Zhang, E. J. Jensen, A. Gettelman, D. Barahona, A. Nenes, and P. Lawson, 2012: Sensitivity studies of dust ice nuclei effect on cirrus clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5.  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 12061-12079, doi:10.5194/acp-12-12061-2012.

Liu, Z., S.-I. Shin, B. Otto-Bliesner, J. E. Kutzbach, E. C. Brady, and D. E. Lee, 2002: Tropical cooling at the last glacial maximum and extratropical ocean ventilation.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10), doi:10.10292001GL013938. 

Liu, Z., E. Brady, and J. Lynch-Stieglitz, 2003: Global ocean response to orbital forcing in the Holocene.  Paleoceanography, 18 (2), 1041, doi:10.10292002PA000819.

Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, J, Kutzbach, L. Li, and C. Shields, 2003: Coupled climate simulation of the evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene.  J. Climate, 16, 2472-2490. 

Liu, Z., S. P. Harrison, J. Kutzbach, and B. Otto-Bliesner, 2004:  Global monsoons in the mid-Holocene and oceanic feedback.  Climate Dynamics, 22, 157-182.

Liu, Z., S. -I. Shin, R. S. Webb, W. Lewis, and B. L. Otto-Bliesner, 2005: Atmospheric CO2 forcing on glacial thermohaline circulation and climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02706, doi:10.1029/2004GL021929.

Liu, Z., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, et al., 2009:  Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bolling-Allerod warming. Science, 325, 310-314.

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Meehl, G. A., and H. Teng, 2007:  Multi-model changes in El Niño teleconnections over North America in a warmer climate.  Cli. Dyn., 29, 779-790, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0268-3. 

Meehl G. A., J. M. Arblaster, G. W. Branstator, and H. van Loon, 2008: A coupled air-sea response mechanism to solar forcing in the Pacific region.  J. Climate, 21, 2883-2897.

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Meehl, G. A., L. Goddard, J. Murphy, R. J. Stouffer, G. Boer, G. Danabasoglu, K. Dixon, M. A. Giorgetta, A. Greene, E. Hawkins, G. Hegerl, D. Karoly, N. Keenlyside, M. Kimoto, B. Kirtman, A. Navarra, R. Pulwarty, D. Smith, D. Stammer, and T. Stockdale, 2009: Decadal prediction: Can it be skillful?  Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 90, 1467-1485. 

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu, and B. D. Santer, 2009:  The mid-1970s climate shift in the Pacific and the relative roles of forced versus inherent decadal variability.  J. Climate, 22, 780-792.  

Meehl, G. A., C. Tebaldi, G. Walton, D. Easterling, and L. McDaniel, 2009:  The relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L23701, doi:10.1029/2009GL040736.  

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Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, J. Caron, H. Annamalai, M. Jochum, A. Chakraborty, and R. Murtugudde, 2012:  Monsoon regimes and processes in CCSM4.  Part 1:  The Asian-Australian monsoon.  J. Climate, 25, 2583-2608, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00184.1.

Meehl, G. A., A. Hu, C. Tebaldi, J. M. Arblaster, W. M. Washington, H. Teng, B. M.  Sanderson, T. Ault, W. G. Strand, and J. B. White III, 2012: Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to temperature versus sea level rise. Nature Climate Change, 10.1038/NCLIMATE1529.

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