next up previous contents
Next: About this document ... Up: description Previous: C. Resolution and dycore-dependent   Contents


Alcamo, J., A. Bouwman, J. Edmonds, A. Grubler, T. Morita, and A. Sugandhy, An evaluation of the ipcc is92 emission scenarios, in Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, edited by J. Houghton, 247-304, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Ammann, C. M., G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, and C. S. Zender, A monthly and latitudinally varying volcanic forcing dataset in simulations of 20th century climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (12), DOI 1029/2003GL016875, 2003, article no. 1657.

Anderson, G. P., S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, and E. P. Shettle, AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0-120 km), Technical Report AFGL-TR-86-0110, AFGL (OPI), Hanscom AFB, MA. 01736, 1986.

Anthes, R. A., Summary of workshop on the NCAR Community Climate/forecast Models 14-26 July 1985, Boulder, Colorado, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 67, 94-198, 1986.

Arakawa, A., and V. R. Lamb, A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow-water equations, Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 18-36, 1981.

Asselin, R., Frequency filter for time integrations, Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490, 1972.

Austin, P., Y. Wang, R. Pincus, and V. Kujala, Precipitation in stratocumulus clouds: Observational and modeling results, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2329-2352, 1995.

Baede, A. P. M., M. Jarraud, and U. Cubasch, Adiabatic formulation and organization of ECMWF's model, Technical Report 15, ECMWF, Reading, U.K., 1979.

Baker, M. B., Variability in concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei in the marine cloud-topped boundary layer, Tellus, 45B, 458-472, 1993.

Balkanski, Y. J., D. J. Jacob, G. M. Gardner, W. C. Graustein, and K. K. Turekian, Transport and residence times of tropospheric aerosols inferred from a global three-dimensional simulation of $ ^{210}$Pb, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 20,573-20,586, 1993.

Barth, M. C., D. A. Hegg, and P. V. Hobbs, Numerical modeling of cloud and precipitation chemistry associated with two rainbands and some comparisons with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5825-5845, 1992.

Barth, M. C., P. J. Rasch, J. T. Kiehl, C. M. Benkovitz, and S. E. Schwartz, Sulfur chemistry in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: Description, evaluation, features and sensitivity to aqueous chemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1387-1415, 2000.

Bates, J. R., F. H. M. Semazzi, R. W. Higgins, and S. R. Barros, Integration of the shallow water equations on the sphere using a vector semi-Lagrangian scheme with a multigrid solver, Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1615-1627, 1990.

Bath, L., J. Rosinski, and J. Olson, User's Guide to NCAR CCM2, Technical Report NCAR/TN-379+IA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 156 pp., 1992.

Bath, L. M., M. A. Dias, D. L. Williamson, G. S. Williamson, and R. J. Wolski, User's Guide to NCAR CCM1, Technical Report NCAR/TN-286+IA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 173 pp., 1987.

Benkovitz, C. M., C. M. Berkowitz, R. C. Easter, S. Nemesure, R. Wagener, and S. E. Schwartz, Sulfate over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions: Evaluation for October and November 1986 using a three-dimensional model driven by observation-derived meteorology, jgr, 99, 20,725-20,756, 1994.

Berger, A. L., Long-term variations of daily insolation and quaternary climatic changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362-2367, 1978.

Betts, A. K., Parametric interpretation of trade-wind cumulus budget studies, J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1934-1945, 1975.

Bitz, C. M., Documentation of a lagrangian sea ice thickness distribution model with energy-conserving thermodynamics, Technical report, U. of Washington APL-UW TM 4-99, 2000.

Bitz, C. M., and W. H. Lipscomb, An energy-conserving thermodynamic model of sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 15669-15677, 1999.

Blanchard, D. C., and A. H. Woodcock, Production, concentration, and vertical distribution of the sea salt aerosol, Annals New York Acad. Sci., 338, 330-347, 1980.

Bonan, G. B., A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric studies: Technical description and user's guide, Technical Report NCAR/TN-417+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 150 pp., 1996.

Bonan, G. B., K. W. Oleson, M. Vertenstein, S. Levis, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, , and Z.-L. Yang, The land surface climatology of the Community Land Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model, J. Climate, 15, 3123-3149, 2002.

Bourke, W., B. McAvaney, K. Puri, and R. Thurling, Global modeling of atmospheric flow by spectral methods, in Methods in Computational Physics, Vol. 17, 267-324, Academic Press, New York, 1977.

Boville, B. A., and C. S. Bretherton, Heating and dissipation in the NCAR community atmosphere model, J. Climate, 16, 3877-3887, 2003.

Boville, B. A., J. T. Kiehl, P. J. Rasch, and F. O. Bryan, Improvements to the ncar csm-1 for transient climate simulations, J. Climate, 14, 164-179, 2001.

Briegleb, B. P., Delta-Eddington approximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community Climate Model, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7603-7612, 1992.

Briegleb, B. P., C. M. Bitz, E. C. Hunke, W. H. Lipscomb, and J. L. Schramm, Description of the community climate system model version 2 sea ice model, Technical report, National Center for Atmospheric Research,, 2002.

Bryan, F. O., B. G. Kauffman, W. G. Large, and P. R. Gent, The NCAR CSM Flux Coupler, Technical Report NCAR/TN-424+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 58 pp., 1996.

Cess, R. D., Nuclear war: Illustrative effects of atmospheric smoke and dust upon solar radiation, Clim. Change, 7, 237-251, 1985.

Chen, C., and W. R. Cotton, The physics of the marine stratocumulus-capped mixed layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 44 (50), 2951-2977, 1987.

Chervin, R. M., Interannual variability and seasonal climate predictability, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 233-251, 1986.

Clough, S. A., F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, Line shape and the water vapor continuum, Atmos. Res., 23, 229-241, 1989.

Clough, S. A., M. J. Iacono, and J. L. Moncet, Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates - Application to water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 15761-15785, 1992.

Coakley, J. A., R. D. Cess, and F. B. Yurevich, The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget: A parameterization for climate models, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 116-138, 1983.

Colella, P., and P. R. Woodward, The piecewise parabolic method (ppm) for gas-dynamical simulations, J. Comp. Phys., 54, 174-201, 1984.

Collins, W. D., A global signature of enhanced shortwave absorption by clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 31669-31679, 1998.

Collins, W. D., Parameterization of generalized cloud overlap for radiative calculations in general circulation models, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 3224-3242, 2001.

Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. E. Eaton, B. Khattatov, J.-F. Lamarque, and C. S. Zender, Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7313-7336, 2001.

Collins, W. D., J. K. Hackney, and D. P. Edwards, A new parameterization for infrared emission and absorption by water vapor in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D22), 2002a.

Collins, W. D., P. J. Rasch, B. E. Eaton, D. W. Fillmore, J. T. Kiehl, T. C. Beck, and C. S. Zender, Simulation of aerosol distributions and radiative forcing for INDOEX: Regional climate impacts, J. Geophys. Res., 107, DOI 10.1029/2001JD001365, 2002b, article no. 8028.

Cooke, W. F., C. Liousse, H. Cachier, and J. Feichter, Construction of a 1 degrees x 1 degrees fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22137-22162, 1999.

Côté, J., and A. Staniforth, A two-time-level semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit scheme for spectral models, Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2003-2012, 1988.

Curtis, A. R., Contribution to a discussion of `A statistical model for water vapour absorption' by R. M. Goody, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 638-640, 1952.

Dai, Y., X. Zeng, R. E. Dickinson, and coauthors, The Common Land Model: Documentation and User's Guide,, 2001.

Daley, R., C. Girard, J. Henderson, and I. Simmonds, Short-term forecasting with a multi-level spectral primitive equation model. Part I--model formulation, Atmosphere, 14, 98-116, 1976.

Dana, T. M., and J. M. Hales, Statistical aspects of the washout of polydisperse aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 10, 45-50, 1976.

Deardorff, J. W., Parameterization of the planetary boundary layer for use in general circulation models, Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 93-106, 1972.

Demore, W. B., S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, and M. J. Molina, Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: Evaluation number 12, Technical Report JPL Publ. 97-4, JPL, 266 pp., 1997.

Dickinson, R. E., A. Henderson-Sellers, P. J. Kennedy, and M. F. Wilson, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR Community Climate Model, Technical Report NCAR/TN-275+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 69 pp., 1987.

Donner, L., and V. Ramanathan, Methane and nitrous oxide: Their effects on the terrestrial climate, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 119-124, 1980.

Dütsch, H. U., Vertical ozone distribution on a global scale, Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 511-529, 1986.

Duynkerke, P. G., Application of the E-$ \epsilon$ turbulence closure model to the neutral and stable atmospheric boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 865-880, 1988.

Dyer, A. J., A review of flux-profile relationships, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 7, 363-372, 1974.

Ebert, E. E., and J. A. Curry, A parameterization of ice cloud optical properties for climate models, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3831-3836, 1992.

Ebert, E. E., and J. A. Curry, An intermediate one-dimensional thermodynamic sea ice model for investigating ice-atmosphere interactions, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10085-10109, 1993.

Edwards, D. P., GENLN2: A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model, Technical Report NCAR/TN-367+STR, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado, 80307-3000, 147 pp., January, 1992.

Feichter, J., E. Kjellström, H. Rodhe, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and G.-J. Roelofs, Simulation of the tropospheric sulfur cycle in a global climate model, Atmos. Environ., 30 (10), 1693-1707, 1996.

Garcia, R. R., and S. Solomon, A new numerical model of the middle atmosphere. part ii: Ozone and related species, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12937-12951, 1994.

Geleyn, J.-F., Interpolation of wind, temperature and humidity values from model levels to the height of measurement, Tellus, Series A (Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography), 40A, 347-351, 1988.

Godson, W. L., The evaluation of infra-red radiative fluxes due to atmospheric water vapour, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 367-379, 1953.

Goody, R. M., and Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 2nd edition, 1989, 519 pp.

Grenfell, T. C., S. G. Warren, and P. C. Mullen, Reflection of solar radiation by the antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18669-18684, 1994.

Hack, J. J., Parameterization of moist convection in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2), J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5551-5568, 1994.

Hack, J. J., L. M. Bath, G. W. Williamson, and B. A. Boville, Modifications and enhancements to the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1), Technical Report NCAR/TN-336+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 97 pp., 1989.

Hack, J. J., B. A. Boville, B. P. Briegleb, J. T. Kiehl, P. J. Rasch, and D. L. Williamson, Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2), Technical Report NCAR/TN-382+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 120 pp., 1993.

Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, G. Russell, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy, and J. Lerner, Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms, in Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, edited by J. E. Hansen, and T. Takahashi, 130-163, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., 1984.

Held, I. M., and M. J. Suarez, A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 75, 1825-1830, 1994.

Hess, M., P. Koepke, and I. Schult, Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 831-844, 1998.

Hesstvedt, E., O. Hov, and I. S. A. Isaksen, Quasi-steady-state approximation in air pollution modeling: Comparison of two numerical schemes of oxidant prediction, International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, 10, 971-994, 1978.

Hildebrand, F. B., Introduction to Numerical Analysis. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 1956, 511 pp.

Hoffmann, M. R., and J. G. Calvert, Chemical transportation modules for Eulerian acid deposition models, vol. II, The aqueous-phase chemistry, Rep. EPA/600/3-85/017, Environ. Prot. Agency, Research Triangle Park, N. C., 1985.

Hogstrom, U., Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: a re-evaluation, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 42, 55-78, 1988.

Holtslag, A. A. M., and B. A. Boville, Local versus nonlocal boundary-layer diffusion in a global climate model, J. Climate, 6, 1825-1842, 1993.

Holtslag, A. A. M., E. I. F. deBruijn, and H.-L. Pan, A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting, Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1561-1575, 1990.

Holtslag, A. A. M., and C.-H. Moeng, Eddy diffusivity and countergradient transport in the convective atmospheric boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 1690-1698, 1991.

Hortal, M.
Aspects of the numerics of the ECMWF model.
in Proceedings of ECMWF Seminar: Recent developments in numerical methods for atmospheric modelling, 7-11 September 1998, 127-143, .

Hsu, Y.-J. G., and A. Arakawa, Numerical modeling of the atmosphere with an isentropic vertical coordinate, Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1933-1959, 1990.

IPCC, Climate Change, 1994 : Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 emission Scenarios. Cambridge University Press, 1995, ed., John T. Houghton.

Joseph, J. H., W. J. Wiscombe, and J. A. Weinman, The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2452-2459, 1976.

Kader, B. A., and A. M. Yaglom, Mean fields and fluctuation moments in unstably stratified turbulent boundary layers, J. Fluid Mech., 212, 637-662, 1990.

Kagann, R. H., J. W. Elkins, and R. L. Sams, Absolute band strengths of halocarbons F-11 and F-12 in the 8- to 16-$ \mu$m region, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 1427-1432, 1983.

Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437-471, 1996.

Kasahara, A., Various vertical coordinate systems used for numerical weather prediction, Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 509-522, 1974.

Kessler, E., On the distribution and continuity of water substance in atmospheric circulations. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, Mass., 1969.

Kettle, A. J., M. O. Andreae, D. Amouroux, and T. W. Andreae, A global database of sea surface dimethylsulfide (DMS) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMs as a function of latitude, longitude, and month, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 399-444, 1999.

Kiehl, J. T., and B. P. Briegleb, A new parameterization of the absorptance due to the 15 $ \mu$m band system of carbon dioxide, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9013-9019, 1991.

Kiehl, J. T., and B. P. Briegleb, The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing, Science, 260, 311-314, 1993.

Kiehl, J. T., J. J. Hack, and B. P. Briegleb, The simulated Earth radiation budget of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model CCM2 and comparisons with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), J. Geophys. Res., 99, 20815-20827, 1994.

Kiehl, J. T., J. Hack, G. Bonan, B. Boville, B. Briegleb, D. Williamson, and P. Rasch, Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3), Technical Report NCAR/TN-420+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 152 pp., 1996.

Kiehl, J. T., J. J. Hack, G. B. Bonan, B. B. Boville, D. L. Williamson, and P. J. Rasch, The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3, J. Climate, 11, 1131-1149, 1998.

Kiehl, J. T., T. L. Schneider, P. J. Rasch, M. Barth, and J. Wong, Radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosols from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3, J. Geophys. Res., , 1441--1457, 2000.

Kiehl, J. T., and V. Ramanathan, CO$ {}_2$ radiative parameterization used in climate models: comparison with narrow band models and with laboratory data, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5191-5202, 1983.

Kiehl, J. T., and V. Ramanathan, Comparison of cloud forcing derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment with that simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 11679-11698, 1990.

Klein, S. A., and D. L. Hartmann, The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds, J. Climate, 6, 1587-1606, 1993.

Kluzek, E. B., M. Vertenstein, and B. E. Eaton, User's Guide to NCAR CAM2.0, Technical report, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado,, 2002.

Kristjánsson, J. E., and J. Kristiansen, Impact of a new scheme for optical properties of ice crystals on climates of two gcms, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 10063-10079, 2000.

Lacis, A. A., and V. Oinas, A description of the correlated k distribution method for modeling nongray gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9027-9063, 1991.

Large, W. G., Ocean modeling and parameterization, in Modeling and parameterizing the ocean planetary boundary layer, edited by E.P.Chassignet, and J. (eds.), 81-120, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, Printed in the Netherlands.

Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization, Rev. Geophys., 32, 363-403, 1994.

Large, W. G., and S. Pond, Sensible and latent heat flux measurements over the ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 464-482, 1982.

Lawrence, M. G., and P. J. Crutzen, The impact of cloud particle gravitational settling on soluble trace gas distributions, Tellus, 50B, 263--289, 1998.

Le Texier, H., S. Solomon, and R. R. Garcia, Role of molecular hydrogen and methane oxidation in the water vapor budget of the stratosphere, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 114, 281-295, 1988.

Lean, J., J. Beer, and R. S. Bradley, Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3195-3198, 1995.

Levitus, S., Climatological atlas of the world ocean, Technical Report NOAA Professional Paper 13, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1982.

Levkov, L., B. Rockel, H. Kapitza, and E. Raschke, 3D mesoscale numerical studies of cirrus and stratus clouds by their time and space evolution, Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 65, 35-58, 1992.

Li, J., Accounting for overlap of fractional cloud in infrared radiation, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 3325-3342, 2000.

Lin, S.-J., W. C. Chao, Y. C. Sud, and G. K. Walker, A class of the van leer-type transport schemes and its applications to the moisture transport in a general circulation model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1575-1593, 1994.

Lin, S.-J., and R. B. Rood, Multidimensional flux form semi-lagrangian transport schemes, Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2046-2070, 1996.

Lin, S.-J., and R. B. Rood, An explicit flux-form semi-lagrangian shallow water model on the sphere, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 2531-2533, 1997.

Lin, Y.-L., R. R. Farley, and H. D. Orville, Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22, 1065-1092, 1983.

Lind, J. A., and G. L. Kok, Henry's law determination for aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyacetic acid, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 7889-7896, 1986.

Liousse, C., J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, and H. Cachier, A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19411-19432, 1996.

Locatelli, J. D., and P. V. Hobbs, Fall speeds and masses of solid precipitation particles, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2185-2197, 1974.

Lohmann, U., and E. Roeckner, Design and performance of a new cloud microphysics scheme developed for the ECHAM general circulation model, Climate Dynamics, 12, 557-572, 1996.

Lord, S. J., W. C. Chao, and A. Arakawa, Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. part iv: The discrete model, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 104-113, 1982.

Maahs, H. G.
Sulfur dioxide/water equilibrium between 0$ ^\circ$ and 50$ ^\circ$C: An examination of data at low concentrations.
in Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., volume 26, 273, Washington, D. C. AGU.

Machenhauer, B., The spectral method, in Numerical Methods Used in Atmospheric Models, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1979.

Machenhauer, B.
MPI workshop on conservative transport schemes.
in Report No. 265, . Max-planck-Institute for Meteorology.

Mahowald, N., C. Luo, J. delCorral, and C. Zender, Interannual variability in atmospheric mineral aerosols from a 22-year model simulation and observational data, J. Geophys. Res., 2003.

Manabe, S., Climate and the ocean circulation: 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth's surface, Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774, 1969.

Manabe, S., and F. Möller, On the radiative equilibrium and heat balance of the atmosphere, Mon. Wea. Rev., 89, 503-562, 1961.

Manabe, S., and R. Strickler, Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a convective adjustment, J. Atmos. Sci., 21, 361-385, 1964.

Maykut, G. A., and D. Perovich, The role of shortwave radiation in the summer decay of a sea ice cover, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7032-7044, 1987.

Maykut, G. A., and N. Untersteiner, Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 1550-1575, 1971.

McAvaney, B. J., W. Bourke, and K. Puri, A global spectral model for simulation of the general circulation, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1557-1583, 1978.

McPhee, M. G., Turbulent heat flux in the upper ocean under sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5365-5379, 1992.

Moeng, C.-H., and P. P. Sullivan, A comparison of shear- and buoyancy-driven planetary boundary layer flows, J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 999-1022, 1994.

Mote, P. W., J. R. Holton, J. M. Russell, and B. A. Boville, A comparison of observed (haloe) and modeled (ccm2) methane and stratospheric water vapor, grl, 20, 1419--1422, 1993.

Müller, J.-F., and G. P. Brasseur, IMAGES: A three-dimensional chemical transport model of the global troposphere, jgr, 100, 16445--16490, 1995.

National Bureau of Standards, Selected values of chemical thermodynamic properties, 1, Tech. Note 270-1, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1965.

Ono, N., Specific heat and heat of fusion of sea ice, in Physics of Snow and Ice, Vol. I, edited by H. Oura, 599-610, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido, Japan, 1967.

Orszag, S. A., Fourier series on spheres, Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 405-412, 1974.

Paulson, C. A., and J. J. Simpson, Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr, 7, 952-956.

Raisanen, P., Effective longwave cloud fraction and maximum-random overlap of clouds: A problem and a solution, Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 3336-3340, 1998.

Ramanathan, V., Radiative transfer within the Earth's troposphere and stratosphere: A simplified radiative-convective model, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1330-1346, 1976.

Ramanathan, V., and R. E. Dickinson, The role of stratospheric ozone in the zonal and seasonal radiative energy balance of the Earth-troposphere system, J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1084-1104, 1979.

Ramanathan, V., and P. Downey, A nonisothermal emissivity and absorptivity formulation for water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8649-8666, 1986.

Ramanathan, V., R. J. Cicerone, H. B. Singh, and J. T. Kiehl, Trace gas trends and their potential role in climate change, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5547-5566, 1985.

Ramaswamy, V., and S. M. Freidenreich, Solar radiative line-by-line determination of water vapor absorption and water cloud extinction in inhomogeneous atmospheres, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9133-9157, 1991.

Rasch, P. J., B. A. Boville, and G. P. Brasseur, A three-dimensional general circulation model with coupled chemistry for the middle atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9041-9071, 1995.

Rasch, P. J., N. M. Mahowald, and B. E. Eaton, Representations of transport, convection, and the hydrologic cycle in chemical transport models: Implications for the modeling of short-lived and soluble species, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28127-28138, 1997.

Rasch, P. J., M. C. Barth, J. T. Kiehl, S. E. Schwartz, and C. M. Benkovitz, A description of the global sulfur cycle and its controlling processes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1367-1385, 2000.

Rasch, P. J., and J. E. Kristjánsson, A comparison of the CCM3 model climate using diagnosed and predicted condensate parameterizations, J. Climate, 11, 1587--1614, 1998.

Rasch, P. J., and M. G. Lawrence.
Recent developments in transport methods at ncar.
in MPI workshop on conservative transport methods, 93 Report No. 265., , Hamburg, Germany. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology.

Rasch, P. J., and D. L. Williamson, On shape-preserving interpolation and semi-Lagrangian transport, SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput., 11, 656-687, 1990.

Ringler, T. D., R. P. Heikes, , and D. A. Randall, Modeling the atmospheric general circulation using a spherical geodesic grid: A new class of dynamical cores, Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2471-2490, 2000.

Ritchie, H., and M. Tanguay, A comparison of spatially averaged Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian treatments of mountains, Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 167-181, 1996.

Robert, A. J., The integration of a low order spectral form of the primitive meteorological equations, J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 44, 237-245, 1966.

Roberts, R. E., J. E. A. Salby, and L. M. Biberman, Infrared continuum absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 8-12 $ \mu$m window, Appl. Opt., 15, 2085-2090, 1976.

Rodgers, C. D., and C. D. Walshaw, The computation of infra-red cooling rate in planetary atmospheres, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 67-92, 1966.

Rothman, L. S., A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, R. R. Gamache, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, N. Husson, and A. Chedin, AFGL trace gas compilation - 1982 version, Appl. Opt., 22, 1616-1627, 1983.

Rothman, L. S., A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. V. Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates of 2001, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 82, 2003.

Rothrock, D. A., and A. S. Thorndike, Measuring the sea ice floe size distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 6477-6486, 1984.

Sangster, W. E., A meteorological coordinate system in which the Earth's surface is a coordinate surface, Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago, Department of Geophysical Sciences, 1960.

Sato, R. K., L. M. Bath, D. L. Williamson, and G. S. Williamson, User's guide to NCAR CCMOB, Technical Report NCAR/TN-211+IA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 133 pp., 1983.

Simmons, A. J., and D. M. Burridge, An energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite-difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 758-766, 1981.

Simmons, A. J., and R. Strüfing, An energy and angular-momentum conserving finite-difference scheme, hybrid coordinates and medium-range weather prediction, Technical Report ECMWF Report No. 28, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, U.K., 68 pp., 1981.

Simmons, A. J., and R. Strüfing, Numerical forecasts of stratospheric warming events using a model with hybrid vertical coordinate, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 109, 81-111, 1983.

Slingo, A., A GCM parameterization for the shortwave radiative properties of clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1419-1427, 1989.

Slingo, J. M., The development and verification of a cloud prediction scheme for the ECMWF model, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 113, 899-927, 1987.

Smith, S. J., H. Pitcher, and T. M. L. Wigley, Global and regional anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, 99-119, 2001.

Stamnes, K., S. C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, A numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media, Appl. Opt., 27, 2502-2509, 1988.

Starr, V. P., A quasi-lagrangian system of hydrodynamical equations, J. Meteor., 2, 227-237, 1945.

Steele, M., Sea ice melting and floe geometry in a simple ice-ocean model, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 17,729-17,738, 1995.

Stenchikov, G. L., I. Kirchner, A. Robock, H. F. Graf, J. C. Antuna, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and L. Thomason, Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13837-13857, 1998.

Stowe, L. L., A. M. Ignatov, and R. R. Singh, Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16889-16910, 1997.

Suarez, M. J., and L. L. Takacs, Documentation of the aries/geos dynamical core: Version 2, Technical Report Technical Memorandum 104 606 Vol. 5, NASA, 1995.

Sundqvist, H., Parameterization of condensation and associated clouds in models for weather prediction and general circulation simulation, in Physically-based Modeling and Simulation of Climate and Climate Change, Vol. 1, edited by M. E. Schlesinger, 433-461, Kluwer Academic, 1988.

Taylor, K. E., D. Williamson, and F. Zwiers.
Amip ii sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration boundary conditions. 23 June 1997 (revised 6 April 2001).

Temperton, C., Treatment of the Coriolis terms in semi-Lagrangian spectral models, in Atmospheric and Ocean Modelling. The André J. Robert Memorial Volume, edited by C. Lin, R. Laprise,, and H. Ritchie, 293-302, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, Ottawa, Canada, 1997.

Temperton, C., M. Hortal, and A. Simmons, A two-time-level semi-Lagrangian global spectral model, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 111-127, 2001.

Tripoli, G. J., and W. R. Cotton, A numerical investigation of several factors contributing to the observed variable intensity of deep convection over south Florida, J. Appl. Meteorol., 19, 1037-1063, 1980.

Troen, I., and L. Mahrt, A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer; sensitivity to surface evaporation, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 37, 129-148, 1986.

Twomey, S. A., M. Piepgrass, and T. L. Wolfe, An assessment of the impact of pollution on global cloud albedo, Tellus, 36, 356-366, 1984.

Untersteiner, N., On the mass and heat budget of Arctic sea ice, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., A, 12, 151-182, 1961.

Varanasi, P., and S. Chudamani, Infrared intensities of some chlorofluorocarbons capable of perturbing the global climate, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1666-1668, 1988.

Vogelezang, D. H. P., and A. A. M. Holtslag, Evaluation and model impacts of alternative boundary-layer height formulations, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 81, 245-269, 1996.

Washington, W. M., Documentation for the Community Climate Model (CCM), Version $ \emptyset$, Technical Report NTIS No. PB82 194192, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 1982.

Wesely, M. L., Parameterization of surface resistances to gaseous dry deposition in regional-scale numerical models, Atmos. Environ., 23, 1293-1304, 1989.

Williamson, D. L., Description of NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM0B), Technical Report NCAR/TN-210+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, NTIS No. PB83 23106888, 88 pp., 1983.

Williamson, D. L., Time-split versus process-split coupling of parameterizations and dynamical core, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2024-2041, 2002.

Williamson, D. L., L. M. Bath, R. K. Sato, T. A. Mayer, and M. L. Kuhn, Documentation of NCAR CCM0B program modules, Technical Report NCAR/TN-212+IA, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, NTIS No. PB83 263996, 198 pp., 1983.

Williamson, D. L., J. T. Kiehl, V. Ramanathan, R. E. Dickinson, and J. J. Hack, Description of NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1), Technical Report NCAR/TN-285+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 112 pp., 1987.

Williamson, D. L., and J. G. Olson, Climate simulations with a semi-Lagrangian version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1594-1610, 1994.

Williamson, D. L., and P. J. Rasch, Two-dimensional semi-Lagrangian transport with shape-preserving interpolation, Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 102-129, 1989.

Williamson, D. L., and J. M. Rosinski, Accuracy of reduced grid calculations, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1619-1640, 2000.

Williamson, D. L., and G. S. Williamson, Circulation statistics from January and July simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM0B), Technical Report NCAR/TN-224+STR,, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, NTIS No. PB85 165637/AS, 112 pp., 1984.

Williamson, G. S., CCM2 datasets and circulation statistics, Technical Report NCAR/TN-391+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 85 pp., 1993.

Williamson, G. S., and D. L. Williamson, Circulation statistics from seasonal and perpetual January and July simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1): R15, Technical Report NCAR/TN-302+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 199 pp., 1987.

Wiscombe, W. J., and J. W. Evans, Exponential-sum fitting of radiative transmission functions, J. Comput. Phys., 24, 416-444, 1977.

Xu, K.-M., and S. K. Krueger, Evaluation of cloudiness parameterizations using a cumulus ensemble model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 342-367, 1991.

Yanai, M., S. Esbensen, and J.-H. Chu, Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets, J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 611-627, 1973.

Yin, F., D. Grosjean, and J. H. Seinfeld, Photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide, I, Mechanism development, J. Atmos. Chem., 11, 309-364, 1990a.

Yin, F., D. Grosjean, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, Photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide, II, Mechanism evaluation, J. Atmos. Chem., 11, 365-399, 1990b.

Zender, C. S., H. Bian, and D. Newman, The mineral Dust Entrainment And Deposition (DEAD) model: Description and 1990's dust climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2003.

Zeng, X., and R. E. Dickinson, Effect of surface sublayer on surface skin temperature and fluxes, J. Climate, 11, 537-550, 1998.

Zeng, X., M. Zhao, and R. E. Dickinson, Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data, J. Climate, 11, 2628-2644, 1998.

Zhang, G. J., and N. A. McFarlane, Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model, Atmosphere-Ocean, 33, 407-446, 1995.

Zhang, M., W. Lin, C. S. Bretherton, J. J. Hack, and P. J. Rasch, A modified formulation of fractional stratiform condensation rate in the NCAR community atmospheric model CAM2, J. Geophys. Res., 108  (D1), 2003.

Zilitinkevich, S. S., Dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1970, 292 pp.

Jim McCaa 2004-06-22